...creating a strong technology development environment can be very helpful. In part this can be based on activities by large local companies and even multinationals (e.g., early in the case of software development in India), as long as people and ideas can migrate into the start-up sector. Endeavor has had great success – see their metrics – by focusing on developing trust among key people, including entrepreneurs, influential established business leaders, and governments. (I’ve been an adviser to Endeavor in the past, and I highly recommend participation in their International Selection Panels – where outside experts interview candidates and determine which specific people should receive Endeavor support.)
Universities often play a critical role in this regard – with government policy having an important role, in terms of supporting research and also facilitating technology licensing and transfer (e.g., see the work of Ed Roberts on MIT). There also needs to be a culture of cooperation between universities and business.
There needs to be less discouragement given to the kind of people who gave Carly her first opportunity. All the MIT economists laid end to end (Please!) wouldn't begin to help as much as those little people do.